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Use This Example MRSA Capstone Project as a Model to Craft a Great Paper

Capstone project, APA, Undergraduate
7 pages, 8 sources

On each stage of studying (high school, college/university, graduate school), crafting a capstone project peaks the educational process. A defended capstone project symbolizes a successful accomplishment of yet another phase of your academic journey. One of the ways to improve your chances of a favorable outcome is to find a great capstone project example and use it as a model for your own paper. So, below we present a piece that can do the trick for you. It is about a strain of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and out of numerous MRSA capstone projects, it truly stands out due to its all-round excellence. Use it as a source of actionable capstone writing and structuring insights, and your work will run as smoothly as it only gets.

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MRSA

Abstract

Staphylococcus Aureus (a bacterium found on people’s skin) is usually harmless and does not pose any biological significance. Nevertheless, some instances have been reported in which the bacterium has caused a serious infection that, if not treated, might lead to death. It is the work of research organizations like CDC to combat the spread of such infections before too many people are affected. Therefore, the main research question in this paper is based on the efforts taken by the CDC to combat the spread of the Staphylococcus Aureus infection in the scientific context. The paper will thus look at various ethical perspectives to gain a clear insight into the study. For instance, it will discern laws that govern the issue, ethical obstacles, and ethical theories relevant to answering the research question, among other factors. The study will also look at cultural perspectives regarding the issue, such as cultural values and norms, and how cultural differences affect various aspects of the research.

Introduction

Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium found on the human skin. The bacterium is usually harmless and does not have any biological importance. However, in some cases, the bacterium may cause severe infection that might lead to death. Therefore, the research question is: what are the efforts the CDC has taken to combat the spread of infection of the Staphylococcus aureus in a scientific context?

Ethical Perspective of Inquiry

What laws govern or pertain to the issue?

In most cases, science is always regulated by different types of laws and regulations. Governmental or academic bodies always form laws and regulations to permit or limit science from performing certain practices or even research in specific scientific areas. Legislation laws always govern any scientific research if the outcome is considered to be immoral, harmful or even dangerous (Dantes et al., 2013). As a result, the regulation of science may be related closely to culture, society, and religion. Therefore, the issue is regulated by academic and government laws. The violation of both categories of these laws can lead to fines or even being jailed. Thus, the researchers should ensure that the process is done based on these laws to avoid any unwanted consequences.

Ethical obstacles that influence the way the medical community addresses the matter

The confidentiality and privacy of the patient

One of the most crucial legal and ethical issues in the medical field is how patients’ confidential information can be protected. The doctor-patient conversation is highly confidential since it is about the medical condition of an individual. According to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, there are specific provisions that spell out what information can be shared and with whom.

Disease transmission

The infection triggers an important reminder on the medical practitioners to ensure they embrace the necessary precaution measures from transmissible diseases, whether by indirect or direct contact with the patient (Tong, Davis, Eichenberger, Holland, & Fowler, 2015). If the history of the patient’s health is not adequately provided to the medical practitioners, legal and ethical questions may arise.

Relationships

Sexually based relationships between the patients and the healthcare staff within the medical center are uncalled for during experiments. Sexual harassment is also hazardous to all the participants, as well as the facility. Therefore, the code of conduct should provide explicit provisions on this.

End-of-Life Matters

Patients suffering from a terminal illness may like to die in a particular way. Most families find it challenging to decide on whether or not to terminate life support for a family member. There is a need for healthcare providers to be adequately prepared to deal with end-of-life matters and also the challenges that come with elderly patients who are unable to make vital decisions personally.

How ethical theories are linked to the matter

Moral Absolutism

According to absolutists, an act is either evil or right based on its effects. The Categorical Imperative, a principle developed by a well-known absolutist Immanuel Kant, can be applied in determining the consequences of action yet to be executed. According to the principle, an act is free for execution, provided its basic principle is worth transforming into a universal law with no contradiction generated.

This means that an evaluation is done on an action with the consideration of the consequences of every person doing the same. Kant emphasizes the fact that people should be perceived as ends on their own with personal value, and therefore, they are not supposed to only serve as a means to other ends (Forschler, 2013). Therefore, through the test of universality, a health officer can decide to apply the principle by offering treatment to the individual who needs it most, regardless of their identity and status. This principle would be highly acceptable as a universal law to most people since it can be equally used on every individual and appreciates the intrinsic value of everybody.

Moral Relativism

Relativism is the application of similar basic laws in different ways in various cases. Therefore, the same laws will be applied in the treatment of the infection and in measuring the outcome of the treatment.

Consequentialism

This shows how good an action is based on its consequences. Utilitarianism is a well-known consequentialist theory. John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham formalized it in the 18th century (Forschler, 2013). According to Bentham, an evaluation can be done to make a comparison on the various benefits based on their extent, intensity, duration, proximity, certainty, purity and if it may generate more future benefits. From utilitarian perception, experimenting to find the cure of the infection is of great importance since the whole country might be affected in case a treatment is not found.

How are money, power, and control matters related to the issue and its treatment?

There is a significant correlation between money, power, and control matters on one side and scientific research and treatment on the other side. Money is needed to buy all the essential resources for experiments, as well as pay the staff members. In most cases, especially in government laboratories, money is mostly from the taxpayers’ funds even though other donors can also contribute. On the other hand, the people in power can use it to do both good and bad, depending on their character and intentions (Kalajtzidis, 2013). Therefore, those with power can take control of the issue and scientific research, as well as the treatment. They can authorize people to take the treatment as required if that is the best option. They can also use their power to gain control of the issue and make sure it is done according to their plans.

Cultural Perspective of Inquiry

Which cultural values and norms influence the issue?

The study was influenced in a number of ways by cultural values and norms. One of the cultural values that significantly influenced the study was safety. This is because the scientist believed that the infection caused by the bacteria could spread to other healthcare facilities, such as clinics and hospitals (Chakrabarty & Bass, 2015). Therefore, the CDC was trying its best to ensure that the proper control is taken for this specific bacterium and offer prevention efforts.

Another cultural value that influenced the study was collectivism. The value promotes harmony and interaction among different groups in society. It also enhances the interdependent relationship in society. Therefore, the CDC felt obliged to perform a study that will help the community in general by preventing the spread of the infection (Denecke et al., 2015). In this respect, collectivistic cultures concentrate on the goals and needs of a given group of people in general over the desires and needs of individual purposes. Thus, this cultural value enhances the relationship between members of a group. Respectively, the interconnectedness between individuals plays an essential role in society and scientific research. Thus, the CDC felt that it was their responsibility to act on behalf of others by conducting issues to ascertain how the infection can spread. They are also making sure that they offer the best preventive measure for society as a whole.

Similarly, a cultural value that influenced the study was commitment. The CDC was committed to coming up with a solution that would ensure public safety. Their commitment was seen through sensitive mechanisms, such as telling people always to wash their hands if they have problems with their health or suffering from the condition. It is the cultural value of commitment that has always enabled the CDC to succeed in most of their studies.

How is the issue addressed differently in varying cultural contexts and situations?

Culture plays a crucial part in determining how a problem is defined and treated. It is imperative to note that the cultural contexts differ in various regions of the world or even in one community. Therefore, concerns about the adoption of the study also differ from one culture to another. For example, in cultures found in Asia and Africa, more concern should be raised on the regulatory mechanisms to ensure that people in the region are protected adequately (Forschler, 2013). In Europe, the issue should be addressed by ascertaining who was scared of the process and the effects on local people. In other cultures, concerns regarding tampering with the environment should be addressed since in some cultures new scientific solutions extend beyond science into ethical, legal, and social issues. It is, therefore, necessary for the scientist in charge of the research to ensure that the strategies used in engaging the opinion of the public take into account the cultural contexts’ differences. Poor handling of scientific issues can lead to public distrust of scientific information, and this can be attributed to their cultural beliefs. Therefore, scientific problems should be addressed based on cultural context for them to be adopted in different communities.

Which cultures or societies are most affected by the issue?

The most affected people are acute patients from the United States. As a result, the CDC is working together with more than four hundred acute care hospitals in the country through the use of EHR. The trends of infection and progress monitoring will be possible from the feedback of this group of people (Meidinger, 2017). In this respect, the most affected communities are those from rural areas of the country. Notably, this is because the CDC believes that the issues can be controlled by educating the community members about different ways they can minimize the occurrence of the infection. These people are prone to infection because most of them are illiterate and ignorant of the disease and preventing measures. Moreover, people from rural areas are not always ready to trust scientific initiatives led by the CDC. This makes the work of the CDC difficult because it needs public trust to ascertain that the organization’s relevance is unquestionable.

Which cultural traditions affect the treatment?

Cultural traditional practices reflect the beliefs and values held by a given community for a given period, which is usually generations. Every social grouping has particular cultural practices in which some are always beneficial to society, while others are harmful. One of the cultural traditions that impact the treatment is the belief in education. In most cultures, access to education for women is limited compared to their male counterparts (Slade & Prinsloo, 2013). This affects the treatment significantly as both women and men need to be educated on the issue and given various ways of preventing the infection. In most societies, females are still viewed as domestically-oriented and passive, while males are perceived as breadwinners and dominants.

Therefore, during educational programs on a different aspect of the disease, both men and women should have equal opportunities for education.

Conclusion

It is apparent that both ethical and cultural perspectives impact scientific research in various ways. There are ethical obstacles that might interfere with scientific research, such as patient privacy and confidentiality. On the other hand, some cultural traditions, such as education, might also interfere with the treatment of disease. It is essential for researchers to put into consideration both ethical and cultural context when doing scientific research.

References

  1. Chakrabarty, S., & Bass, A. E. (2015). Comparing virtue, consequentialist, and deontological ethics-based corporate social responsibility: Mitigating microfinance risk in institutional voids. Journal of Business Ethics, 126(3), 487-512.
  2. Dantes, R., Mu, Y., Belflower, R., Aragon, D., Dumyati, G., Harrison, L. H., ... & Ray, S. M. (2013). National burden of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, United States, 2011. JAMA internal medicine, 173(21), 1970-1978.
  3. Denecke, K., Bamidis, P., Bond, C., Gabarron, E., Househ, M., Lau, A. Y. S., ... & Hansen, M. (2015). Ethical issues of social media usage in healthcare. Yearbook of medical informatics, 24(01), 137-147.
  4. Forschler, S. (2013). Kantian and Consequentialist Ethics: The Gap Can Be Bridged. Metaphilosophy, 44(1-2), 88-104.
  5. Kalajtzidis, J. (2013). Ethics of social consequences as a contemporary consequentialist theory. Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe), 3(3-4), 159-171.
  6. Meidinger, E. (2017). The administrative law of global private-public regulation: The case of forestry. In Crime and Regulation (pp. 113-153). Routledge.
  7. Slade, S., & Prinsloo, P. (2013). Learning analytics: Ethical issues and dilemmas. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(10), 1510-1529.
  8. Tong, S. Y., Davis, J. S., Eichenberger, E., Holland, T. L., & Fowler, V. G. (2015). Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management. Clinical microbiology reviews, 28(3), 603-661.
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